Roma Numismatics Ltd > Auction XXXAuction date: 21 March 2024
Lot number: 396

Price realized: 10,000 GBP   (Approx. 12,668 USD / 11,663 EUR)   Note: Prices do not include buyer's fees.
Lot description:

Julius Caesar AR Denarius. Rome, 43 BC. L. Flaminius Chilo, moneyer. Wreathed head of Caesar to right / Goddess (Pax or Venus?) standing to left, holding caduceus and sceptre; L • FLAMINIVS downward to right, IIII • VIR upward to left. Crawford 485/1; CRI 113; BMCRR Rome 4201-2; RSC 26. 3.78g, 19mm, 8h.

Good Extremely Fine; attractive cabinet tone, a wonderful portrait of Caesar.

This coin published in Richard Schaefer's Roman Republican Die Project (RRDP), binder 12, p. 14, available online at:;
Ex Roma Numismatics Ltd., Auction XXIII, 24 March 2022, lot 769 (hammer: GBP 10,000);
Ex Viggo Collection, Classical Numismatic Group, Triton XXII, 8 January 2019, lot 946;
Ex JD Collection of Roman Republican Coins, Numismatica Ars Classica, Auction 72, 16 May 2013, lot 494;
Ex Numismatica Aretusa, Auction 2, 13 May 1994, lot 294.

In the years of his supremacy, Caesar had amassed unprecedented power by corrupting the institutions of the old Republic to his own requirements. First appointed Dictator in 49 BC by the Praetor (and future Triumvir) Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, possibly in order to preside over elections, Caesar resigned his Dictatorship within eleven days but in 48 BC he was appointed Dictator again, only this time for an indefinite period, and was also given permanent tribunician powers making his person sacrosanct and allowing him to veto the Senate. In 46 BC he was appointed Dictator for ten years, and he gave himself quasi-censorial powers under the mantle of 'Prefect of the Morals', enabling him to fill the Senate with his partisans who duly voted him the titles of Pater Patriae and Imperator. He increased the number of magistrates who were elected each year, thus allowing him to reward his supporters, and in October 45 BC, having served in the unconstitutional role of Sole Consul for that year, Caesar resigned his consulship and facilitated the election of two successors for the remainder of the year - theoretically restoring the ordinary consulship, but in practice submitting the Consuls to the Dictatorial executive - a practice that later become common under the empire. In February 44 BC, one month before his assassination, Caesar was appointed Dictator for life.

More followed; he was given the unprecedented honour of having his own likeness placed upon the Roman coinage, his statue was placed next to those of the kings, he was granted a golden chair in the Senate, and was permitted to wear triumphal dress whenever he chose. Then, at the festival of the Lupercal, Marc Antony presented Caesar with a royal diadem, and attempted to place it on his head. Yet for all these hideous affronts to the ancient institutions of the Republic and the sensibilities of the Roman people, perhaps his most egregious reform was the law he passed in preparation for his planned campaign against the Parthian Empire. Realising that his absence from Rome would impede his ability to install his own men in positions of power and that therefore his back would be exposed while away from the city, Caesar decreed that he would have the right to appoint all magistrates in 43 BC, and all consuls and tribunes in 42 BC, thus at a stroke transforming the magistrates from being representatives of the people to being representatives of the dictator.

Struck after Caesar's assassination, this coin marks a departure from the portraiture on the coinage minted during his lifetime. Rather than the veiled head of Caesar the dictator, depicted instead is the wreathed head of the soon-to-be deified adoptive father of Octavian. This depiction of Caesar by Flaminius Chilo appears to be heavily influenced by Octavian's concerted attempts in the aftermath of Caesar's death to rehabilitate his image in the eyes of many of those at Rome who had developed concerns surrounding his increasing power and also, perhaps more cynically, to reinforce Octavian's own legitimacy as his heir.

Estimate: 8000 GBP

Match 1:
Roma Numismatics Ltd > E-Sale 119Auction date: 24 April 2024
Lot number: 1307

Price realized: 200 GBP   (Approx. 249 USD / 233 EUR)   Note: Prices do not include buyer's fees.
Lot description:

Julius Caesar AR Denarius. Rome, 44 BC. L. Aemilius Buca, moneyer. Wreathed head to right; [CAE]SAR before, DICT P[ERPE]TV[O] behind / Venus seated to right; [L•B]VCA behind. Crawford 480/7b; CRI 104a; RSC 24. 3.40g, 19mm, 6h.

Near Very Fine; banker's mark to obverse, areas of flatness and planchet flaw. Very Rare.

Estimate: 300 GBP

Match 2:
Roma Numismatics Ltd > E-Sale 119Auction date: 24 April 2024
Lot number: 1304

Price realized: 460 GBP   (Approx. 572 USD / 535 EUR)   Note: Prices do not include buyer's fees.
Lot description:

Mn. Cordius Rufus AR Denarius. Rome, 46 BC. Jugate heads of Dioscuri to right; RVFVS•III•VIR downwards behind / Venus Verticordia standing to left, holding scales and sceptre, Cupid at shoulder; MN•CORDIVS downwards behind. Crawford 463/1a; CRI 63; BMCRR Rome 4037-8; RSC Cordia 2. 3.94g, 19mm, 6h.

Near Extremely Fine.

Estimate: 250 GBP

Match 3:
Roma Numismatics Ltd > Auction XXXAuction date: 21 March 2024
Lot number: 406

Price realized: 3,800 GBP   (Approx. 4,814 USD / 4,432 EUR)   Note: Prices do not include buyer's fees.
Lot description:

Divus Julius Caesar AR Denarius. Rome, 40 BC. Q. Voconius Vitulus, moneyer. Laureate head to right; DIVI•IVLI downwards before, lituus behind / Bull-calf walking to left; Q•VOCONIVS above, VITVLVS in exergue. Crawford 526/2; CRI 329; Sydenham 1132; BMCRR Rome 4308-10; RSC 46. 3.95g, 20mm, 10h.

Extremely Fine; a bold portrait of Caesar.

Ex Walter Luckhardt Collection, Dr. Busso Peus Nachfolger, Auction 433, 1 November 2022, lot 1431;
Previously acquired from Santamaria, Rome, in 1940.

In 40 BC when this coin was struck, upon learning of the defeat of his brother Lucius and wife Fulvia in the Perusine War, Marc Antony set sail for Italy with a small army and two hundred ships which he had built in Asia. Arriving at Athens, Antony was met by his wife Fulvia and his mother Julia, who had taken refuge with Sextus and been sent by him with warships from Sicily. She was accompanied by some leading Pompeians whose aim was to bring Antony and Sextus into alliance against Octavian. Antony's response to the embassy was to offer alliance in case of war and reconciliation in case of peace, suggesting that Antony believed that a lasting partnership with Octavian was still possible. These new lines of communication with Sextus provided an avenue by which former supporters of the liberators could find their way back from exile; the most prominent of these was Ahenobarbus, who met Antony at sea with his whole army and fleet; this combined force moved together to Brundisium, but was refused entry to the harbour by Octavian's commander.

Despite initially laying siege to Brundisium, the triumvirs were able to negotiate a settlement that provided for a continued peace between them. The Treaty of Brundisium confirmed the de facto state of affairs, while further binding Octavian and Antony through the ill-fated marriage of Octavian's sister Octavia to Antony. Antony furthermore received legions for his planned invasion of Parthia and Octavian received warships to counter the ongoing threat posed by Sextus Pompey. This denarius depicts the now deified Caesar on the obverse with a lituus, an augur's staff representing his membership to the priestly college of augurs. Octavian's possession of the augurship was also made clear on an issue with his portrait struck by the same moneyer (CRI 330) emphasising his relationship to Caesar, a propaganda tool also employed by Marc Antony (see CRI 253-5, 257-8). It is well attested how Octavian capitalised tremendously on his posthumous adoption by Caesar; in truth he owed everything he eventually achieved to this twist of fate. Octavian used Caesar's reflected but undimmed prestige to legitimise himself and his ascent to power in the eyes of the Roman people and more importantly the legions, and thus the continuation of (often idealised) Caesar portrait issues at the Roman mint under Octavian's control is hardly surprising.

This denarius, struck by Q. Voconius Vitulus, a partisan of Octavian of whom nothing else is known, features a purely personal reverse type with a punning allusion to his cognomen which translates as cow or calf. It was to be one of the last within the long tradition of the college of moneyers stretching back almost two and a half centuries, for the institution was abolished by the Triumvirate and state coinage placed under the direct control of the either the eastern of western Triumvir.

Estimate: 3000 GBP

Match 4:
Roma Numismatics Ltd > E-Sale 115Auction date: 21 December 2023
Lot number: 822

Price realized: 850 GBP   (Approx. 1,077 USD / 981 EUR)   Note: Prices do not include buyer's fees.
Lot description:

Julius Caesar AR Denarius. Military mint travelling with Caesar, 48-47 BC. Diademed female head to right, wearing oak-wreath; LII (Caesar's age) behind / Trophy of Gallic arms, wearing horned helmet, holding oval shield ornamented with thunderbolt and carnyx; securis to right, CAE-SAR across lower fields. Crawford 452/2; CRI 11; BMCRR Rome 3955; RSC 18. 3.58g, 21mm, 3h.

Extremely Fine; areas of delamination.

Caesar's conquest of Gaul, which the reverse of this coin alludes to, with its captured Gallic spoils (the typical shield, the Gallic 'carnyx' or war horn, and axe), was the springboard from which he was to take control of the Republic and become its Dictator. It allowed him to grow his power base through both fame as the conqueror of so vast a region and of so many peoples, and through strength as the commander of an army that grew ever more experienced and fiercely loyal. His allocation of the provinces of Gaul also granted him a magistrate's immunity from the prosecution his enemies intended to conduct upon his return to Rome, which would undoubtedly have stunted his career. It was from his province of Cisalpine Gaul that he invaded Italy across the Rubicon, and he did so with the Legio XIII Gemina, who had fought for him in the major battles of his conquest of Gaul.

The importance of this conquest of Gaul to Caesar's career, and his awareness of this, is demonstrated by this coin. It was minted some time after he had left Gaul behind, by the mint which had moved with his army across the Mediterranean and beyond as it chased down the Optimates, most likely in Greece shortly after the victory over Pompey in Pharsalus. Yet the type harks back to these Gallic victories, reminding those he paid with these coins of his past as a Roman hero - a conqueror not of his own people, but of his people's enemies.

Estimate: 500 GBP

Match 5:
Roma Numismatics Ltd > E-Sale 118Auction date: 8 April 2024
Lot number: 1236

Price realized: 85 GBP   (Approx. 107 USD / 99 EUR)   Note: Prices do not include buyer's fees.
Lot description:

L. Julius Bursio AR Denarius. Rome, 85 BC. Male head to right, with attributes of Apollo, Mercury and Neptune; club (control symbol) behind / Victory driving quadriga to right, holding reins and wreath; unclear number above horses, L•IVLI•BVRSIO in exergue. Crawford 352/1c; De Ruyter obv. die 110; BMCRR Rome 2512 ff. var. (control symbol); RSC Julia 5a. 3.61g, 20mm, 3h.

Good Very Fine.

Ex LNB Collection of J Bursio Denarii, Roma Numismatics Ltd., E-Live Auction 6, 25 March 2023, lot 607;
Ex iNumis, Mail Bid Sale 17, 23 March 2012, lot 113.

Estimate: 50 GBP